Primary Source Analysis: Headlines and Quotes

12 Apr

The second time we analyzed primary resources, we looked at newspaper headlines and quotes.  The Internet is truly amazing when you get into more recent history.  There are a variety of website from reputable sources such as Stanford University, Digital History, and PBS that have gathered primary source materials from recent history, such as WWII.

I made two copies of all of my materials, and I glued the quotes on one large piece of butcher paper, and the newspaper headlines on another.  Since I had made copies of both, I ended up with four stations. I randomly separated the class into four groups, so there were seven students at each station.

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I also provided them with a prompt sheet for what they could think and write about when at the chart paper.

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I asked them to take five minutes to silently read the headlines or quotes and respond to them, in writing, directly on the paper.  As students read the resources, they wrote reactions and questions such as “That’s terrible!”  “that’s not truthful,” “why did they say Lincoln would intern the Japanese if he wasn’t even alive?” and “it sounds like the camps were very crowded.”  I circulated amongst them and answered some questions on vocabulary words and confusing sentence structures.

I wanted students to look at it silently at first so that they had a chance to grapple with the material on their own.  It gave  children who needed more time (and more quiet to think) an opportunity to work through the analysis independently.

Then I gave the groups two minutes to talk to their group about what they were thinking.  The groups had a lively discussion, and I noticed them sorting out confusions during the conversation.  They clarified vocabulary for each other and re-interpreted headlines or quotes that had been confusing, as well as pointing to details that not all had noticed.

The next step was for groups to switch to the table that had the SAME resources.  They looked at what the other group had written and talked about similarities or differences.

After that, students switched to the butcher paper with the alternate resource (headlines or quotes) and followed the same routine.

We finished up our work by coming inside and doing a quick write about their response to what they learned.

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I provided students with some beginning frames to help them get started.

“The newspaper headlines and quotes from the internment camp period are mostly about _____.

They show ______.

For example, _____.

They also show _______.”

The frames helped them to begin and then to elaborate their thinking, and I was impressed at how many students went back to the resources so that they could quote accurately.  As usual, grammar, punctuation and spelling were emphasized.

The whole process took about an hour, but it felt like we got a lot done!  There were a few things I would do differently next time.  I would preload some of the more challenging vocabulary–I ended up just writing synonyms directly on some of the headlines and quotes.  I would also include more information about who said the quotes (name, age, place).  Many students asked where the quotes came from, which was an important question for historical thinking, and I didn’t have the answer.  It would have helped them to work on considering the author’s point of view, which is hinted at in common core standard 4.6, and is required more explicitly in fifth grade.

It was fun work, and challenging too.  Next up, letters from children in the camps!

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